Harsh environmental conditions, including pressure and temperature extremes, vibration, shock, radiation, chemistry (acids, bases), biological domains, and corrosion attacks, pose a significant challenge for conventional sensing devices. Most sensing elements on the market cannot survive in harsh environments.
As essential components of military electronics systems, crystal resonators are always in need of improvement with respect to new materials and/or new designs. However, resonators in missiles and airborne radar usually are subject to harsh environments such as vibration and shock, as well as temperature variations.
The Energy Information Administration estimates that 67% of energy generated in the U.S. is from the fossil fuels including coal, petroleum, and natural gas.
The rapid growth of remote, wireless and MEMS (Micro Electro-Mechanical System) devices recent have motivated the development of a self-powered system that can replace traditional electrochemical batteries. Piezoelectric energy harvesters are ideal for capturing energy from mechanical vibrations in the ambient environment.